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… a better life for all

Mrs K Gallagher
Chief Minister

ACT Government
PO Box 1020
Canberra ACT 2600

Postal address:

PO Box 1010
Strawberry Hills NSW

Email: info@animaljusticeparty.org

Web: www.animaljusticeparty .org

22 May 2013

cc Mr S Rattenbury

ACT Minister for Territory and Municipal Services

Chief Minister

A Moratorium on Kangaroo Killing in the ACT

The Animal Justice Party of Australia opposes the killing of kangaroos in the ACT by
your Government on three groun
ds: a) there is a serious decline in kangaroo numbers across the
ACT as a whole
, and on its nature reserves, with numbers drastically lower than the levels your
Government has its
elf advocated were needed to sustain its grasslands and its kangaroo
population, b) the killing program your Government has imposed involves gross animal cruelty
ofthe most grotesque kind, and c) the availabi
lity of successful ethical noharm alternatives
and exper
tise to implement them, including experience within the ACT, in situations where
kangaroo habitat ha
s been significantly compromised. At a minimum, the AJP calls for a
moratorium on the killing of kan
garoos until these matters are more properly considered by
ur Government.

Last year, ACT Greens MLA Mr Rattenbury, now one of your Ministers, said he would
lcome independent research into estimates of kangaroo numbers in ACT nature reserves.
s research is nearing completion and early results have already been given to Mr
ttenbury. You and Mr Rattenbury have also in the past been presented with autopsy
idence (from a highly respected forensic wildlife veterinarian) of severe brutality resulting
from the Government’s killing program last year. The availability and success of no-harm
ternatives such as translocation, including in the ACT and more widely, has also been brought
to the attention of both you and Mr Rattenbury.

We are disturbed now to read in The Guardian newspaper that Greens Minister Mr
Rattenbury has said: Without a predator, kangaroos have increased their abundance and have a
detrimental impact on the rest ofthe ecosystem’ , and the Greens have not opposed that cull’. If
Mr Rattenbury has peerreviewed and authoritative evidence that kangaroos have a detrimental
impact on the ecosystem why have we never been able to see it and have it independently
scrutinised? Where is the evidence of apparent ecosystem improvement from the previous four

years of kangaroo killing? This has been asked for many times and has never been
forthcoming. Clearly, Mr Rattenbury and the ACT Government are conveniently choosing to
ignore human ‘predation’ (housing and commercial development, killing programs) and their
vehicles and guns, wire fencing, out-of- control dogs and degraded habitat due to weed
infestation. The chance of a newborn kangaroo infant reaching maturity is now less than 20 per
. If significant public funds are being spent on killing kangaroos to supposedly improve the
local ecosystem, the public needs to be able to scrutinise the results of this expenditure.

Mr Rattenbury, the ACT Greens and your Government have supported the brutal killing
of kang
aroos for four years. This is just one of many reasons why this country desperately
eds an Animal Justice Party so that animals have an honest and passionate voice in this
country’s parliaments where decisions are made that impact on their wellbeing. This is the
reason why the AJP is standing ten candidates in the forthcoming federal election on September
, including for the Senate in the ACT, and why it will contest all jurisdictional elections,
including in the ACT
, from now on.

Attached (Attachment 1) you will see evidence from respected consulting wildlife
ecologist Ray Mjadwesch, author of the highly influential 2011 report: Nomination to List the
Large Macropods as Threatened Species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act
1995. Mjadwesch says the numbers of kangaroos in the ACT are far from abundant and have
plummeted by around 75 per cent since white settlement. Indeed, there are now areas across
the ACT where kangaroos are locally extinct, or are threatened with local extinction

Mjadwesch’s analysis concludes:

28.3 per cent ofthe ACT is unsuitable habitat for Eastern Grey Kangaroos (EGKs) on
account of stee
p terrain, incorrect vegetation types etc.

• Eastern Grey Kangaroos are extinct in 20.5 per cent ofthe ACT, on account of human
upation (city and suburban areas, and heavily modified rural landscapes)

• Kangaroos are under pressure across 29.9 per cent of the ACT, from agriculture (loss of
habitat and shooting), shooting in nature reserves, and from the softwood industry
/disruption of habitat)

• Kangaroo habitat in which EGKs are effectively conserved now occupies only 21.3 per
cent of Australia’s capital territory, down from 71.7 per cent of the ACT in 1788.’

This datasupported evidence stands in stark contrast to the ACT Governments own data
nd Mr Rattenbury’s statements suggesting ‘abundance’. There is no abundance of kangaroos
in the ACT. It is an urban myth perpetuated by those with a poor regard for our nation’s iconic
. For this reason alone there is serious cause for concern and a need for a moratorium on
killing kangaroos to enable fuller investigation.

On Mr Rattenbury’s invitation last year, ACT citizens concerned about its wildlife have
been undertak
ing independent kangaroo counts on Canberra’s nature reserves, on which the
ACT Government k
illing program has been implemented in recent years. Ecologist Ray
Mjadwesch has provide
d instruction to this group of concerned citizens. Information about
previous Canberra killing pr
ograms under FOI suggest the methodology of kangaroo counting
used by ACT Government officials is superficial and highly inaccurate, with gross
exaggeration. Additional advice on vegetation cover has also been obtained by those carrying
ut the independent community science kangaroo counts. The four teams of ACT citizens
ncerned about Canberra’s wildlife have used GPS, compasses, range finders and their
ar knowledge of kangaroo behaviour to examine numbers of kangaroos and vegetation
11 nature reserves at various times throughout the day in various weather conditions, to be
sure that many of the typical influencing variables are accounted for. A total of 43 separate
urveys were undertaken across the
11 reserves by ACT citizens concerned about Canberras
ildlife. Detailed reports on the habitat condition of every nature reserve compiled by these
teams are current
ly being completed.

While the final writeup of research on the 11 nature reserves is not quite complete, the
attached table (Attachment 2) gives an indication of kangaroo densities based on the survey
work completed. This data,
using the higherlevel count estimate figures from the four teams,
hows alarmingly low kangaroo densities, giving rise to concern that at these levels there will
be no sustainability in kangaroo numbers and they will decline to mere remnant levels at best,
given the many other
threats to their habitat and movement. It is important to be aware that
kangaroos are highly stressed animals and the ACT citizens concerned about Canberra’s
wildlife all noted in their survey work the differing behaviour on those reserves where k
and harassment of kangaroos has occ
urred. Post-traumatic stress is a significant determinant in
reduced wildlife procreation and this has been noticed on ACT reserves in the lower levels of
foot infant offspring.

Chief Minister, in earlier planning documents the ACT Government has said it wanted
to have kangaroo densities at around one kangaroo per hectare on its nature reserves. More
recently, your officia
ls have stated that your target is now 0.5 kangaroos per hectare, or in dry
heep equivalent grassland carrying capacity terms around onetenth of a single sheep per
hectare, or onethirtieth of a single cow. While these figures are ridiculously low for a soft-
footed native animal that has existed in this country for 16 mi
llion years, the data now being
collected t
hrough community science in the ACT now actually show much lower kangaroo
densities, with the highest kangaroo density being a mere (maximum estimate) 0.378 kangaroos
per hectare
. The Goorooyaroo nature reserve has an estimated maximum kangaroo density of
just 0.099. Chief Minister, this equates to around one fiftieth of one sheep and around a
undred and fiftieth of a single cow in grassland carrying capacity terms. The averag
kangaroo density over the
11 reserves is only 0.208. This is plain environmental van

Chief Minister, each year when a kangaroo kill program is carried out the Government‘s
rhetoric is always about how humane it will be and that it is carried out by well
professional shooters, who only need one clean shot to the brain for an instantaneous death

We now know this is completely false. You earlier received the autopsy report of a kangaroo
killed during the 2012 kill. This autopsy report was completed by internationally known and
highly respected wildlife and forensic veterinarian Dr Howard Ralph. While this report is for
nly one rescued body, it is highly likely that many other animals suffered the same pitiful and
cruel fate as this random example. There are many photos of kangaroos dug up from the burial
pit by activists last year that show miss
shots to the head. These photos are also attached
Attachment 4).

In Dr Ralphs forensic report of 4 June 2012 (Attachment 3), we would like you to
focus on the very last paragraph which states (inter alia):

The above series of lesions indicates that the kangaroo was first shot, then bludgeoned
on the head and then stabbed in the neck. The evidence is consistent with the kangaroo
being alive until finall
y being exsanguinated and asphyxiated by a laceration to the
hroat. The kangaroo very likely suffered severe pain and distress for some time during
this progressive attack, until the fatal exsanguination and asphyxiation.

Chief Minister, you cannot possibly ignore this kind of extreme brutality to a sentient
being. To do so would demonstrate the worst kind of human behaviour; in which a wider right
minded community would have serious misgivings about who they have in charge of their city.
n this regard we draw your attention to the recent Cambridge Declaration of eminent
euroscientists and neuropsychologists (2012) in the presence of Professor Stephen Hawking.
That Declaration states (inter alia):

... the weight of evidence indicates that humans are not unique in possessing the
rological substrates that generate consciousness. Nonhuman animals, including all
mammals and bird
s, and many other creatures, including octopuses, also possess these
logical substrates.

Chief Minister, clearly some kangaroos are at risk on Canberra’s nature reserves due to
habitat destruction, shooting by surrounding rural lessee farmers, weed infestation and
continued harassment by humans and dogs. In those reserves where kangaroo safety is at risk
we favour translocation to more habitatfriendly places as an ethical, successful, nokill method
of manageme
nt. The research by Ray Mjadwesch, summarised in the attached report from him
(Attachment 1), suggests there are plenty of areas in the ACT to which kangaroos could be

The success of kangaroo translocation has been demonstrated in peer-reviewed
literature and in a recent example in the ACT. Such success depends on it being done
vely by people with experience in kangaroo behaviour and translocation, as well as skills
nd a licence in chemical immobilisation. It is now not accurate for your Government to say
that the tran
slocation of kangaroos cannot be successfully undertaken. Indeed Chief Minister,
the AJP’s senate candidate for the ACT in the forthcoming federal election, Marcus Fillinger, is
highly qualified and licenced expert in chemical immobilisation. There are few others that
can boast his level of expertise in this area and he is available in the ACT.

Chief Minister, the cost to the ACT ratepayer of the 2012 ACT Government killing
program was more than $215000, or more than $186 for each of the 1154 kangaroos you had
slaughtered. Based on the costs of a recent kangaroo translocation program within the ACT
that had a one hundred per cent success rate, we know the cost of a nokill approach through
translocation is just
$24.20 per translocated kangaroo. Chief Minister, this cost is six times less
sive than what you have spent on your killing program.

The cost savings of translocation rather than killing, include no need for security
sonnel and police, their travel and accommodation, no need for shooters, their travel and
mmodation, no need for government rangers, no need for ammunition, no need for heavy
tion equipment for burial pits, no need to close the nature reserves to the general public
for a continuous period, and no need to hire intensifier night vision / thermal imaging
equipment or encumber vital imaging assets from emergency services whi
ch in turn could cost
the lives of the gener
al public in an emergency.

Other benefits include avoidance of significantly increased protests and growing negative
ublic opinion, and learning about how to save animal lives, which requires considerably more
skill and knowledge than simp
ly killing.

Further information about kangaroo translocation costs in a delayed release situation are
found in the peer rev
iewed publication
http://www.awrc.org.au/uploads/5/8/6/6/5866843/garlick austen translocation2.pdf

Chief Minister, we have one other significant concern about the actions your
ment has taken with respect to kangaroo killing in the ACT and the recent statements by
Greens Minister Mr Rattenbury that
a cull is necessary. In a world where daily news about
violence has become all
consuming there is now peer-reviewed evidence that brutality to
nimals, and the depiction and support for animal brutality, leads to violence and cruelty by
humans against humans in our co
mmunities. For this additional reason it is not alright to
brutalise kangaroos as has occurred in Canberra in the past five years.

Chief Minister, in the past your Government has stated that in killing kangaroos it
s the precautionary principlein relation to other ecological elements in the ACT. There
has ne
ver been any causal evidence that kangaroos have a deleterious impact on this ecology –
it is
purely associative evidence, which is not satisfactory in defending a program of native
animal killing on ecological grounds. Simple photographs of a fenced and unfenced area of
grassland are fa
r from sufficient scientific evidence. Chief Minister, if we are to operate under
he ‘precautionary principle’, let us have scientific uncertainty and growing public concern
ved by detailed and independent analysis. In that regard a moratorium is the only decision
hat can be made. You will lose no votes with such a decision. How ‘true blue’ will you be in
s year of ACT centenary?

Professor Steve Garlick PhD
, Animal Justice Party

Marcus Fillinger

Candidate for the Animal Justice Party for the Senate in the ACT

  • Kangaroos in the ACT – a predicted model of distribution and abundance.
  • Attached graphic illustrates a model for distribution of Eastern Grey Kangaroos in the ACT in 2013,
    based on kangaroo observations (Atlas of Living Australia (light blue triangles), scientific studies
    (blue triangles) and community reports (pink triangles)), land-use, vegetation type and terrain
    Green indicates that suitable habitat exists in the unit, and there is protection for kangaroos (national
    / conservation reserve). These units include open grasslands such as at Tidbinbilla, as well as
    higher ranges comprising grassy forests, however it may be that wildfire has removed kangaroos
    from some of the illustrated situations. If kangaroos persist they could be expected to occur at near-
    normal densities in optimal habitat areas
    (between 200-450 / km2, possibly at lower densities in sub-
    l habitats).

    Note that green does not indicate that the whole square is suitable habitat, it just indicates that
    some of the square is potential habitat
    , and in this section of the square kangaroos can be expected
    persist at something approximating 1788 densities. In the south of the ACT (Namadji National
    Park) the green is based on Banks descriptions of abundantkangaroos at his 4 study sites (2001).

    Orange indicates locations where kangaroos generally persist in landscapes where they are not
    protected, and where they are subject to impacts of human occupation, including rural lands,
    remnants adjoining urban development or land bounded / bisected by roads, and conservation
    eserves in which shooting occurs. These areas formerly represented optimal kangaroo habitat
    (expected 1788 densities 200-450 / km2), and this made these lands a target for agricultural
    lopment historically. Given stated densities in these regions (TAMS KMP 2010) of around 40/
    m2 (in 1997) and a target density of 0.5/ha in the urban reserves, reductions in these areas could
    be expected to be in the order of 80-90%.

    Red indicates landscapes where kangaroos are under extinction pressure. This unit includes small
    ted remnants, and cleared lands adjoining known / occupied areas and remnants. Kangaroos in
    these areas are often in trouble (on roadsides, trying to navigate their way through cleared farmland
    / fences, etc), and are likely to have experienced decline in the order of up to 99% (may persist at
    ies of 1-5 / km2).

    Black indicates areas where kangaroos are presumed extinct (likely 100% reduction). These areas
    re typically highly fertile landscapes, historically given to agricultural, and urban development,
    including the CBD and suburbs, airport, highly modified agricultural landscapes etc. These units
    previously have supported 200450 kangaroos / km2.

    Gold indicates pine plantations. While kangaroos can persist in pine plantations, when harvesting
    urs this is highly disruptive to populations, which generally disperse into surrounding landscapes
    with often poor outcomes on local roads and in fences. Vegetation clearing also drives kangaroos
    into neighbouring farmland, where they are frequently shot, and the cycle of pine planting and
    harvesting, oft repeated, can push populations to critically low levels or extinction. For the purposes
    f this discussion Eastern Grey Kangaroo densities in pine plantations are estimated to be 90%
    educed from 1788 levels.

    White indicates habitats typically unused by Eastern Grey Kangaroos, principally on account of
    steep terrain and generally unsuitable vegetation types being present. Dispersing animals may
    sometimes be encountered in these habitats in low densities (negligible contribution to total for the

    There are additional layers I would like to add to this graphic, including a density distribution map of
    ting statistics across the ACT (for the purposes of “damage mitigationand conservation
    ulling), to further illustrate the pattern of persecution across the territory. Further refinement of the
    ictive model based on vegetation mapping of the ACT would also be an objective to finalise this
    direction of my investigation, with reference to http://http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/extentlactlindex.html.ln
    ddition there may be natural altitudinallimits to their distribution (max height of observations c.
    1300m at Bulls Head), which I have not taken into consideration in predicting their possible
    distribution through the high country.

    I am also in receipt of 46 data sets and hundreds of photos from community surveys across the
    urban reserves, on which basis density calculations and population estimates are being produced.
    ese do seem to vary significantly from the various TAMS pellet count and community survey
    mates. All of this is obviously a lot of work to do however, particularly in an unpaid capacity, and
    as I have paid contracts which require my attention at the moment, it will take some time to
    incorporate these additional determinants into the model.

    In the interim, the following summary provides an indicator of the order of magnitude of decline in
    kangaroos in the ACT:

    • 28.3% of the ACT is unsuitable habitat for Eastern Grey Kangaroos on account of steep
      terrain, incorrect vegetation types etc
    • Eastern Grey Kangaroos are extinct from 20.5% of the ACT, on account of human
      occupation (city and urban areas, and heavily modified rural landscapes)
      • Kangaroos are under pressure across 29.9% of the ACT, from agriculture (loss of habitat
        and shooting), shooting in reserves, and from softwood industry (loss of habitat / disruption)
      • Kangaroo habitat in which they are effectively conserved now occupies only 21.3% of
        ralias capital territory, down from 71.7% of the ACT in 1788.

    Overall kangaroo decline (simple reduction in distribution and abundance) across the ACT is
    expected to be in the order of 75.8%.

    I have tried to be optimistic in allocating green to squares in the south of the study area, to ensure
    hat kangaroo distribution is not underestimated. It may be that tracts of potential habitat through
    places like Emu Flat and Kangaroo Creek actually have no kangaroos, in which case the magnitude
    f decline will be greater than indicated above. If you just consider the top half of the ACT (down to
    line 44) the order of predicted decline runs at around 88%.

    Apart from page 15 of the TAMS KMP (2010) which obviates the need for further discussion on this
    ic (picture of ideal habitat“, but where are the kangaroos?), an irresolvable contradiction within
    the culling program is simply demonstrated by the statement in the ACT kangaroo shooting program
    information, which describes kangaroos at densities of up to and exceeding 450/ km2
    t Yankee Hat without any significant impact on grassland / woodland conservation values.

    Simultaneously impacts on grasslands by over-abundant populationsis exactly the reason cited for
    eir shooting in and around the city reserves, where TAMS have identified initial densities of only
    355 I km2, with aspirationall target densities of only 50-160 / km2 being described as
    sustainable” .

    The ACT Government and TAMS are faced with a stark choice.

  1. Continue with an unpopular and seemingly unjustifiable program of shooting, even in the face of
    emerging evidence clearly indicating significant and continuing decline in the subject species, or
  2. Operate under the precautionary principle, where scientific uncertainty can be resolved by
    led and independent analysis of the findings of Or Fletcher, and of a parallel community
    driven study on the kangaroos of the parks and reserves of the city precincts (in prep).

Given the amount of shooting which has already occurred (up to 80% of animals have been shot in
some reserves
), not shooting the kangaroos in the parks and reserves for a year, while this issue is
lved, is not going to cause irreparable damage to ecosystems, which are reported to be affected
by the so-called

Or Fletcher’s local knowledge and input would be welcome, to further refine the attached predictive
l for kangaroos in the ACT. It would be expected that groundtruthing sections of the landscape
and do
ing density studies in different land systems (for example pine forests) would allow more
accurate estimates
to be made. It may be that a simple walk to somewhere like Square Rock (L46)
render several green squares white (on account of habitat being unsuitable), for example.
Obviously further careful consideration of these and other factors affecting kangaroos across the
ACT wi
ll be required before there can be concluding statements on the situation there, however
initial impressions are cause for serious concern.

It should be remembered that the attached model is a startpoint for quantifying the distribution and
abundance of t
his iconic species across the ACT, in the face of ever-intensifying human impact, in
rder to initiate discussion about conservation of a species at risk.

In the longer term it seems inevitable that the future for kangaroos in the reserves of the city
ts will be untenable. Their decline as suburbs continue to swallow land, and their fate as they
forced onto roads and through fences is not a kind one, as groups are broken up and dispersed,
and as they are run over, chased by dogs and caught in fences. The current situation also places an
r onus of responsibility on wildlife rescuers and carers in the region.

The attached graphic illustrates the solution, as well as the problem, however. Populations
isting in isolation (such as Crace, Mulligans, Majura, the Pinnacle, Mt Painter etc) may require
relocating for their o
wn sake; there seem to be ample landscapes within the system of reserves in
the ACT
to accommodate them.

A translocation program, including construction of release compounds and running a monitoring
ram, should not exceed the current shooting budget, while providing a safe, humane and long
term solution to the problems faced by the kangaroos (and their managers) in and around Canberra.
Where locals do like and want their kangaroos, these communities will require assistance in
managing and protecting populations.

  • I hope these comments are helpful.

    All the best

    Ray Mjadwesch
    Conservation Biologist


    Attachment 2:

    Kangaroo densities on Canberra nature reserves March/ April 2013*


    Area (Ha)

    Number of

    Maximum survey


    survey team

    siting (at foot)**



    Callum Brae



    54 (12)





    46 (8)


    Farrer Ridge



    53 (17)





    74 (6)





    36 (13)



    330 (KMU)


    59 (21)


    Mt Painter

    232 (KMU)


    77 (8)


    Mulligans Flat



    82 (2)



    358 (KMU)


    69 (9)





    16 (4)


    Wanniassa Hills

    498 (KMU)


    97 (13)







    *Undertaken by ACT citizens concerned about wildlife and advised by consulting ecologist Ray

    **maximum siting from the surveys undertaken in column 3.


    BVSc (Hons), MVS (Wildlife Medicine)
    MBBS (Hens)
    , JCCA Accred (Anaesth),
    A/Dip FA, Dip TESL, Cert Ed NSW

    Clinical Forensic MO

    15 June 2012


    On 4 June 2012, I was requested to conduct a post mortem examination on a young,
    male Eastern Grey Kangaroo. The kangaroo weighed 16kg.


    The nutritional status of the kangaroo was adequate.

    The kangaroo was externally moist and the fur contained a considerable amount of
    dried and moist di
    rt in small rolled balls attached to the fur. There was blood partly
    ing the head, neck, front legs and chest. There were several wounds evident
    on the head and neck.

    The first of these wounds was a small (0.5 to 1.0 cm diameter) rounded hole that
    penetrated deeply into the tissue at the level
    of the zygomatic arch and mid distance
    between the r
    ight eye and the right ear. The penetration progressed in a line from

    the small hole, through the soft tissue of the temporal, masseter and facial muscles
    and out through the lateral area that was originally the mandible. That area showed a
    large (6
    x 5 cm), irregular wound containing remnants of soft tissue and multiple small
    fragments of mandibular bone and teeth
    . The original structure of the mandible and
    teeth was totally disrupted. There two wounds are consistent with a bullet wound
    entry above and exit below

    The second wound was at the posterodorsal (back and top) aspect of the head.
    There was conside
    rable crepitus (crunching sensation) on palpation of the skull and
    the cran
    ium was deformed and not intact. Incision over the scalp revealed
    haemorrhage benea
    th the skin and multiple fractures of the cranial (skull) bone.

  • These bone fragments were easily moved to display a large amount of haemorrhage
    within the skull and brain. The brain showed considerable external haemorrhage with
    some also in the ventricles and brain substance
    . This injury is consistent with a
    crushing, blunt trauma to the skull and brain.

    The third wound was on the right side of the neck about 4cm distal to the angle of
    the mandible (point of the jaw)
    , 3 to 4cm from dorsal (top) to ventral (bottom) and
    2cm wide at the centre. The edges of the wound were regular and smooth consistent
    with a sharp knife entry wound
    . Within the wound there was blood from the jugular
    , carotid artery and other smaller vessel that had been severed. A number of
    muscles were divided (severed). The trachea was divided (severed) leaving a
    smooth surface on each fragment
    . There was blood in both sections of the trachea
    and extending down into the bronchi

    The skin of the neck was retracted and revealed subcutaneous haemorrhage
    extending from the posterior skull along the dorsum (top) of the cervical area to
    almost the level of the scapula and shoulder. This indicated that there was bleeding
    from the head wounds during life.

    The chest cavity was opened and contained lungs that partly contained air and partly
    ined blood particularly on the right. The distribution of the air was consistent
    with aspiration of blood during breathing

    The abdomen, hind limbs and lumbosacral spine were examined and did not reveal
    any abnormality


    The first wound to the face was consistent with a gunshot from above, the bullet
    entering at the dorsal part of the r
    ight hand side and exiting at the level of the
    mandible and causing massive damage to that bone and teeth. That was likely to be
    the primary wound of a series of three wounds and is not likely to have been fatal

    The second wound, to the skull and brain, caused extensive trauma/damage to both
    tures and is consistent with blunt trauma caused by a blow with a heavy object.
    Considering the bleeding along the dorsum of the neck and the series of three
    assaults on this kangaroo
    , this trauma to the head was unlikely to have caused
    immediate death.

    The third wound is consistent with a penetrating knife wound to the neck. The skin,
    muscle, vessels and trachea were divided in such a manner as to be also consistent
    with a deep kni
    fe injury. The presence of blood aspirated into the trachea, bronchi
    and lung is consistent with aspiration before death

    The above series of lesions indicates that the kangaroo was first shot, then
    bludgeoned on the head and then stabbed i
    n the neck. The evidence is consistent
    ith the kangaroo being alive until finally being exsanguinated and asphyxiated by a
    laceration to the t
    hroat. The kangaroo very likely suffered severe pain and distress
    r some time during this progressive attack, until the fatal exsanguination and

    Yours sincerely

    Dr Howard Ralph


    … a better life for all

    Postal address:     Email: info@animaljusticeparty.org

    PO Box toto     Web: www.animaljusticeparty.org

    Strawberry Hills NSW

    The following graphic and distressing images of slaughtered Eastern Grey kangaroos are a
    sample of that taken at the Kama Nature Reserve burial pit

    The images show kangaroos having being shot through the jaw and neck, despite ACT
    vernment claims that kangaroos are killed by a single lethal shot to the head by expert

    The images show infants having had their heads sawn off, in what must be considered a highly
    and violent act. The images also show the bodies of a high proportion of viable kangaroo
    (approximate weight 500 grams) despite statements by the ACT Government that such
    culls are undert
    aken during May to avoid inpouch joeys being impacted on by such killing

  • 3


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