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SNAKES INFORMATION, IDENTIFICATION, TIPS, FIRST AID

Apparently 10 snakes have been identified to inhabit the ACT.

Snakes of the Southern Tablelands and Canberra Region:

Copperhead-Austrelaps superbus, to view picture click on this link  http://museumvictoria.com.au/forest/images/mr006727_md.jpg,  found in Tasmania, Victoria, and western plains of NSW, venom has neurotoxic, coagulopthic and myotoxic actions, however, despite its large venom output, bites are rarely fatal, tiger snake anti venom is used; Small-eyed – Elapidae Cryptophis nigrescens
Eastern Small-Eyed Snake, found on the north coast and tablelands that has been confused for the Red-bellied Black, Small-eyed has a shiny head and body with a pink belly, not a RED belly, venomous; Red-bellied Black snake –Pseudechis porphyriacus, http://ih2.redbubble.net/image.3595621.2680/flat,550×550,075,f.jpg found in all eastern non-arid areas, while their venom has neurotoxic, coagulopthic and myotoxic actions, it is not as potent as most, and no deaths have yet been reported. May use Black or Tiger antivenom; Carpet or Diamond Python – Boidae Morelia spilota spilota, non venomous Carpet Python; White-lipped – Drysdalia coronoides, White-Lipped Snake venom not considered dangerous; Common or Eastern Brown Snake – Pseudonaja textilis, to view the picture please click on this link  http://www.fauna.com.au/web_pages/animals/reptiles/eastern_brown_snake.jpg, while the venom is extremely potent, the quantity of venom injected is usually small, however, this snake causes more snake bite deaths in Australia than any other. Gwardir also known as Western Brown Snake (Gwardir) – Pseudonaja nuchalis, to view pictures click on this link http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Western+Brown+snake+images&oq=Western+Brown+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…494800.498159.14.500476.13.13.0.0.0.0.294.1577.7j2j4.13.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.pA2Z2Wo3gfk&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828 ,and Dugite-Pseudonaja affinis is a Spotted Brown snake found in WA,  to view pictures please click on this link http://www.avru.org/general/general_dugite.html.  Brown snakes, found all over Australia, not Tasmania, venom causes severe coagulation disturbances, neurotoxicity, and occasionally nephrotoxicity (by a direct action of the venom), but not rhabdomyolysis; Death Adder-Acanthopis antarcticus, to view pictures click on this link http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Death+adder+snake+images&oq=Death+adder+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…10379.12139.0.17479.11.8.0.0.0.0.684.1970.5-3.3.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.easiCc97epU&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828  
found almost all over Australia, not Tasmania, has a strongly neurotoxic venom, coagulation defects are usually minor and rhabdomyolysis is almost never seen. It has characteristic appearance and may be striped; Bandy bandy – Vermicella annulata, Bandy-Bandy Snake venomous but not regarded as dangerous(black white banded), habitat is sub-terranian (under ground), and is found Northern and Eastern Australia, Central Australian Deserts; Blind snakes – Typhlopidae Ramphotyphlops australis, Ramphotyphlops bituberculatus, Ramphotyphlops nigrescens, Ramphotyphlops proximus, that are worm like, non venomous, 45 species in Australia, to view pictures of Blind snakes click here http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Blind+snake+images&oq=Blind+snake+images&gs_l=img.12..0i24.323999.324862.2.331675.5.5.0.0.0.0.704.3108.5-4j1.5.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.9hJCBufgXDY&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828live in south-eastern Australia and are found wherever ants are, which is their main food source; Dwyer’s black-headed – Rhinoplocephalus dwyeri, to view pictures click here http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Dwyer%27s+Black+headed+snake+images&oq=Dwyer%27s+Black+headed+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…258338.283371.4.284911.22.22.0.0.0.2.1025.5050.6j4j10j0j1j7-1.22.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.ZEPMDJ3XF7I&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828not considered to be dangerous to humans; Mustard-bellied – Drysdalia rhodogaster,  http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Mustard+bellied+snake+images&oq=Mustard+bellied+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…590200.593086.10.594794.15.15.0.0.0.2.226.1980.7j4j4.15.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.HEqdA75dNaE&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828 , other names: Blue Mountains crowned snake; Little Whip Snake – Suta flagellum, (threatened species) http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Little+Whip+snake+images&oq=Little+Whip+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…1518268.1519979.12.1522232.11.8.0.0.0.0.917.6211.5-1j7.8.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.nAFJxcW6pE4&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828   found through northeast and southeast NSW, with the uncertainty of the toxicity of its venom in humans, and whether or not it actually caused 1 death at Mt Alexander, Victoria on 15 April 2007; and Eastern Tiger Snake – Notechis scutatis, to view photos click here http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Eastern+tiger+snake+images&oq=Eastern+tiger+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…109871.113983.6.115988.13.13.0.0.0.0.317.2076.5j3j4j1.13.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.igAB_6xIRGY&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828; Black Tiger Snake – Notechis ater,  to view pictures click here http://www.google.com.au/search?q=western+brown+black+snake+images&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BqolUYSSJ7HyigK8t4CYDg&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1055&bih=828#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Black+tiger+snake+images&oq=Black+tiger+snake+images&gs_l=img.12…136183.136879.8.139331.5.5.0.0.0.0.690.3098.5-5.5.0…0.0…1c.1.4.img.W6SA8Urwups&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.42661473,d.cGE&fp=91dda0c50292ae36&biw=1055&bih=828.  The characteristic stripes of the Tiger snake are not seen all year round, and there is a totally black variant found around the Flinders Ranges area of South Australia. As well as neurotoxicity and coagulopathy, rhabdomyolysis (due to Notexin in the venom) is very likely if treatment is delayed. Untreated mortality is about 45%. Tiger snake is found in the temperate southern areas of Australia.

All snakes are Venomous in the ACT, except for the Blind Snake, that is worm like.

The most toxic venom in snakes in the ACT and southern tablelands, rates as Eastern Brown Snake, Tiger Snake, common Death Adder, Copperhead, Redbellied Black Snake, Eastern Small-eyed Snake, that were tested on mice only.

The Inland Taipan has the most toxic venom of any snake tested on mice, on the list of the top 25 most toxic snakes, with Eastern Brown Snake coming 2nd, the Coastal Taipan coming 3rd on the list, followed by the Eastern mainland Tiger snake coming 4th.

The common Death Adder came 10th, Copperhead 12th, Redbellied Black 22nd, Eastern Small-eyed 23rd.

Eastern Brown Snakes are most frequently seen in our gardens, occasionally we see the
Red-bellied Black Snake, Tiger, and Dwyer’s black-headed Snakes.

Eastern Brown Snakes colour can vary from brown to grey, can appear blackish, dark
brown or orange. Young snakes may be entirely brown or may have a black patch
on their head, and a black band on their neck. Black bands across the body may be present.

To avoid snakes from entering your garden, don’t leave piles of bagged leaves and any
other sort of rubbish lying around.

Snakes are as scared of you as you are of them, and will warn you to stay away from
them and not to approach them, by rearing the front part of their body up at you.

While snakes can give you a dry bite, (no venom injected into you), Don’t ignore
their warning to avoid from being bitten.

Snakes will usually pass through your garden, so if you see one, take all your pets,
children and yourselves inside, lock the doors and windows.

Wait for an hour or so before you check again.

To avoid being bitten in all circumstances, allow the snake to pass through, stand still
if bushwalking or just walking through paddocks, etc, do not try to kill or handle snakes, be alert when bush walking, cover up with trousers and enclosed shoes when gardening as well in overgrown areas, avoid walking through long grass and putting your hands into hollow logs or rock crevices, and keep your
pets away from all reptiles, and other wildlife.

Snakes, and all other native wildlife are protected, therefore it is illegal to kill them.

Signs and Symptoms of Snake Bites – the bite site is usually painless. You may have a classical paired fang mark, but this is not the most common picture. Often there are just a few lacerations or scratches, and sometimes these may be painless or go unnoticed.
Bruising, bleeding, and local swelling may be present, but significant local tissue destruction is uncommon in Australia.

Regional lymphadenopathy may be marked, even with non-venomous snake bites, and is not by itself an indication for the administation of antivenom. It may contribute to abdominal pain in children.

The usual sequence of systemic symptom development –

  • (<1hr) Headache (an
    important symptom), irritability, photophobia, nausea, vomiting,
    diarrhoea, confusion; coagulation abnormalities; occasionally sudden
    hypotension with loss of consciousness.
  • (1-3 hrs) Cranial nerve
    paralysis (ptosis, diplopia, dysphagia etc), abdominal pain,
    haemoglobinuria, hypertension, tachycardia, haemmorrhage.
  • (>3hrs) Limb and
    respiratory muscle paralysis leading to respiratory failure, peripheral
    circulatory failure with pallor and cyanosis, myoglobinuria, eventually
    death.

This sequence of events is highly variable. Brown snake bites, even apparently
trivial ones, have been associated with acute deterioration over a five minute
period leading to death.

This may occur as soon as 30 minutes to an hour after the original bite. Acute, severe
cardiac depression may be the mechanism for sudden death.

Paralysis, when it occurs, usually commences with cranial nerves, then skeletal muscle,
then the muscles of respiration. In small children or with highly venomous
snake bites it may happen much more quickly.

Major bleeding disturbances are, as mentioned before, rare with Australian snakes,
although the development of coagulopathies and a DIC-like picture are
relatively common.

Thromboctopaenia and haemolysis may occur. Watch for haematuria, haemoptysis, haematemesis, low bowel haemmorrhage, menorrhagia or haemoglobinuria, and remember that about 20% of patients who die after snake bite have cerebral haemmorrhages.

Muscle destruction from myolytic toxins is not uncommon and may not be associated with muscle tenderness; it may lead to renal failure and should be specifically
looked for, because early treatment with antivenom will reduce its severity.

Snake bite should always be considered in any case of unexpected confusion or loss of
consciousness following outdoor activities in snake country. In Australia,
snake venoms alone cause coagulopathy, so if present you can rule out other
forms of envenomation.

Prognosis depends on the type of snake and the quantity of venom injected. An angry snake and multiple bites is associated with greater venom volumes.

Snake Bites and Domestic Pets:

Ian Westbrook describes, in this moving story, how an apparently trivial bite
from a tiger snake caused the death of one of his dogs. In contrast, Donna
describes her experience with a Death Adder bite.

Murdoch University provides a ‘pets in summer – snakebite warning‘ page with a number of pet safety and snake information sheets.

First Aid for Snake Bites:

Do NOT wash the area of the bite!

It is extremely important to retain traces of venom for use with venom identification
kits!

Stop lymphatic spread – bandage firmly, splint and immobilise!

The “pressure-immobilisation” technique is currently recommended by the
Australian Resuscitation Council, the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
and the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists.

The lymphatic system is responsible for systemic spread of most venoms.
This can be reduced by the application of a firm bandage (as firm as you would
put on a sprained ankle) over a folded pad placed over the bitten area. While
firm, it should not be so tight that it stops blood flow to the limb or to
congests the veins. Start bandaging directly over the bitten area, ensuing that
the pressure over the bite is firm and even. If you have enough bandage you can
extend towards more central parts of the body, to delay spread of any venom
that has already started to move centrally. A pressure dressing should be
applied even if the bite is on the victims trunk or torso.

Immobility is best attained by application of a splint or sling, using a bandage or
whatever to hand to absolutely minimise all limb movement, reassurance and
immobilisation (eg, putting the patient on a stretcher). Where possible, bring
transportation to the patient (rather then vice versa). Don’t allow the victim
to walk or move a limb. Walking should be prevented.

The pressure-immobilisation approach is simple, safe and will not cause iatrogenic
tissue damage (ie, from incision, injection, freezing or arterial torniquets – all of which are ineffective).

See the AVRU site for more details of bandaging techniques.

Bites to the head, neck, and back are a special problem – firm pressure should be
applied locally if possible.

Removal of the bandage will be associated with rapid systemic spread. Hence ALWAYS wait until the patient is in a fully-equipped medical treatment area before bandage
removal is attempted.

Do NOT cut or excise the area or apply an arterial torniquet! Both these measures are
ineffective and may make the situation worse.

Joris Wijnker’s Snakebite Productions has more information on envenomation and he can supply a suitable first aid kit and booklet.

Brief Description for First Aid Treatment – if either you or someone is bitten by a snake, don’t wash the wound, so that the excess venom on you can help the medical
staff identify the snake that bit you, for the use of the anti venom that will be needed to treat you.

Venom travels through the lymph system, which is close to the surface, so apply a
firm pressure bandage over the bitten area and around the affected limb, using a conforming bandage, or other suitable material you may have on you at the time, eg, pantyhose.

Bandage from the bite to the fingers or toes, then up to the armpit or groin.

Apply a splint to immobilise the limb.

Don’t give alcohol, food or drugs,as these will stimulate fluid movement.

Keep still by lying down and call an ambulance to be taken to hospital.

If someone else has been bitten, get them to lay down and keep them still,
reassure them that everything is ok, and keep speaking to them.

Medical Management of Snake Bites

Only 1 in 20 snake bites require active emergency treatment or the administration of
antivenom. Medical management depends on the degree of systemic envenomation
and the type of venom.

See also the AVRU site for more info on clincial assessment and management.

Critically ill patients

  • Maintain immobilisation,
    splint and bandage until the situation is under control!
  • Support airway, breathing
    and circulation.
  • Intubate and ventilate with
    100% Oxygen if airway or respiration fail.
  • Give antivenom immediately (See
    below for details)
    . Intravenous adrenaline should be given only
    for lifethreatening hypotension or anaphylaxis – its use has been
    associated with cerebral haemorrhage.
  • Volume expansion may be
    necessary.
  • Severe coagulation
    disturbances, electrolyte abnormalities, and muscle damage leading to
    acute renal failure are likely.
  • Repeat antivenom as
    clinically indicated.
  • General management as for
    less seriously ill patients as well (see below).

Less seriously ill patients – no signs of systemic spread

  • Admit to ICU for
    non-invasive monitoring, strict bedrest and full head injury observations
    (wake hourly).
  • Leave bandages in place.
  • Obtain appropriate
    antivenoms and venom detection kit.
  • Obtain intravenous access.
  • Take blood for group and
    X-match, coagulation screen (including fibrinogen levels, and tests for
    DIC), full blood count, electrolytes and calcium, creatinine kinase and
    arterial blood gases. Perform ECG. Repeat at appropriate intervals.
  • Collect urine for microscopy
    to detect haematuria and for free protein, haemoglobin and myoglobin
    measurement. Record urine output. Freeze the first sample for venom
    detection.
  • Draw up adrenaline,
    antihistamine, and steroids in case of anaphylaxis to antivenom.
  • When ready, cut a hole over
    the wound site, inspect and take swabs for use with the venom detection kit.
  • Once the results of the
    venom detection kit are known, slowly and progressively remove the
    bandages. Don’t rush!

If systemic symptoms ensue:

  • Re-apply bandages and give
    antivenom as clinically indicated.
  • Ensure the patient is well
    hydrated (to reduce the risk of acute renal failure due to
    rhabdomyolysis).
  • Repeat blood tests, ECG, etc
    at clinically relevant intervals.
  • Correct abnormal
    coagulation; look out for disseminated intravascular coagulation (heparin
    probably contra-indicated in DIC from snake bite).
  • Analgesia and sedation – be
    cautious.
  • Correct hypotension, if
    present, with volume expansion and vasopressors (exclude occult bleeding).
  • Watch for development of
    renal failure – monitor urine output and composition.
  • Tetanus prohylaxis is
    recommended.

Usually, if there are no signs of envenomation four hours after removal of the bandages,
and if repeat blood tests taken at that time are normal, then it is probable that significant envenomation has not occurred. If laboratory tests are not available, 12 to 24 hours is a reasonable period of observation.

Recovery is usually complete, though the patient usually develops a sensitivity to
equine immunoglobulin.

If the patient develops serum sickness (see below), the severity is reduced by steroid
administration (eg. prednisolone 1mg/kg every 8 hours) until resolution occurs.
A course of steroids is recommended in all patients who receive polyvalent
antivenoms.

Antivenoms and Pre-Treatment:

Antivenom should be given to all patients who exhibit signs of systemic spread.

If possible choose the appropriate antivenom. Snake identification is unreliable
(unless the person works with snakes or was bitten in a zoo and they know what
bit them!). Venom detection kits (instructions) may be helpful; if in doubt use
tiger snake antivenom in Tasmania, tiger and brown snake antivenom in Victoria,
and polyvalent antivenom in all other states and New Guinea or see the AVRU guidelines. One ampoule (50ml of 17% protein) should neutralise the average venom yield from milking a snake of that species, and is usually enough for all but the most severe envenomations.
Severe bites may require much more and a recent in vitro study (Sprivulis,
Jelinek and Marshall. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 1996; 24: 379-381)
suggests that much more is also required to neutralize the procoagulant effects
of Brown and Tiger snakes (up to 20 times the recommended dose!). If the
situation allows, antivenoms should be given slowly (over half an hour, diluted
in an IV fluid). A test dose may be advisable, particularly following prior
exposure to equine protein.

The
AVRU site provides detailed antivenom dosage
information
and
info on dosage, administration, premedication, serum sickness, and suggested
quantities to be held by hospitals
.Antivenoms
are prepared from horse serum. The risk of anaphylaxis is very low (less than
1% even for polyvalent antivenoms), but is increased in people who have had
prior exposure to horses, equine tetanus vaccines, and a general allergic
history. This increased risk is much more common in people aged 50 years or
more. About 4% of all administrations are associated with minor reactions.Pre-treatment
with a non-sedating anti-histamine (ie, promethazine 0.25 mg/kg),
subcutaneous adrenaline (0.25mg for adults, 0.01mg/kg for children), and iv
steroids (hydrocortisone 2mg/kg) is still recommended, athough severe
reactions are rare. In general the risk from the snake toxins is much greater
than the risk of administering the antivenom.Each
State in Australia has a specifically formulated polyvalent antivenom to suit
local snake species, however it is preferable to use a snake-specific
antivenom whenever possible to reduce the chance of reactions. Details of
which antivenom to use varies from state to state, and are found with the
packs and test kits.If an
antivenom is administered, ALWAYS advise the patient of the possibility of
delayed serum sickness (up to 14 days later). This is characterised by fever,
rash, generalised lymphadenopathy, aching joints and renal impairment. The
likelihood of developing this depends on the volume of antivenom required. It
occurs in about 10% of patients who are given polyvalent antivenoms.
Treatment with steroids is usually all that is needed.Supplies
of antivenoms may be obtained from Commonwealth Serum Laboratories,
Australia. Struan Sutherland has suggested that metropolitan and regional
hospitals should keep 4 ampoules of polyvalent antivenom and 4 ampoules for
each type of snake that is found in the area. He also suggested that smaller
centers should stock enough antivenom, as approprite for the local snake
population, to manage one bite, unless the incidence of snakebite is
unusually high or low in that area. In southern Victoria a combination of
tiger (3000 units) and brown snake (1000 units) antivenoms can be used where
the identity of the snake is unknown, and in Tasmania tiger snake antivenom
alone (6000 units) is suitable.Shelf
life is 3 years when stored in a refrigerator. Antivenoms should not be
frozen. (Refs: Herpetological Association and related links, Alice Springs
Desert Park, Steve’s guide to snakes of the North Coast and Tablelands NSW,
Reptiles Down Under, Australian Venom Research Unit, Bioinformatiacs Museum
Victoria)

WILDLIFE CARERS GROUP WOULD LIKE TO THANK YOU FOR
ALL YOUR SUPPORT IN 2009/2010.

WISHING YOU A VERY SAFE AND HAPPY YEAR FOR 2011.

There can be no discrimination against our native wildlife, all native
wildlife are precious to our Eco system, in assisting to maintain a healthy
well balanced Eco system, and will be protected, and rehabilitated equally.

Wildlife Carers Group, the only local wildlife group with long term
expertise and knowledge in our native wildlife, that will act on, and
investigate animal cruelty/welfare/rights, and, as a community group, that also cares about our community, and the rights of our community groups.

Wildlife Carers Group, the only local wildlife
group helping to keep our state and country out of deficit, with no government funding, run solely by volunteers, that is keeping you in a job.

Wildlife Carers Group, the only local wildlife group that trains work
experience students.

NORA PRESTON ( began rehabilitating wildlife in the early ’80’s .)
Founding President
WCG – WILDLIFE CARERS GROUP INC. – Founded in 2004.
PO Box 3509
WESTON CREEK ACT 2611

Mob: 0406 056 099

Email: wildlife_carers_group@yahoo.com.au
Website: http://wcg.awardspace.com

http://www.myspace.com/wcginc Check out http://www.myspace.com/wcginc and become a friend. We are also onFacebook, http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1649024860&v=info with photos included on the site, and become a
friend. You can now follow us and join us on Twitter http://twitter.com/wildlifecarersg/,http://canberra.climatexchange.org.au/wildlife-carers-group

7 July 2011

Support WCG. WCG is an independent, non profit, non government community based charity providing animal/wildlife care, rescue/rehabilitation and is also an animal/wildlife welfare group, providing protection for our wildlife/animals, run solely by volunteers, with no government funding, saving taxpayers money. WCG relies on donations from the public in order to carry out its work. If you would like to make a donation to WCG, please send a cheque/money order made payable to Wildlife Carers Group Inc. To PO Box 3509 , Weston Creek. ACT. 2611. AUSTRALIA . Or contact us by
email wildlife_carers_group@yahoo.com.auor mobile: 0406 056 099 to discuss other
alternatives. Thank you for all your support .

Aims and Objectives:
To promote the general welfare and continued survival of native fauna and flora as an essential element of the environment, and specifically to undertake the specialised care necessary for the rehabilitation of orphaned, sick and injured native birds and other animals, to promote public awareness of the need to conserve existing wildlife species, and an understanding of their particular habitat and feeding requirements.

Support WCG. Become a WCG MEMBER, VOLUNTEER, WILDLIFE CARER, download the m/ship form fromhttp://wcg.awardspace.com and join up. Thank you for all your
support.

Click this link: https://wildlifecarersgroup.wordpress.com/2011/08/04/wildlife-carers-group-wcg-visit-to-callum-brae-nature-reserve-etc-full-5-day-work-experience-student-wes-placement-report-trained-by-wcg-founding-president-nora-preston-4-8-july-2011/?sn=l, for Wildlife Carers Group Kangaroo meat testing, process, results, etc.

You can help us make the necessary changes for our native protected
Eastern Grey Kangaroos, by signing this petition, and circulating this for us www.gopetition.com/petitions/saveallthe-kangaroos.html.

In this article, interviewed on 15/4/10, www.nowuc.com.au/2010/05/27/kangaroo-plan…/comment-page-1/ don fletcher from tams says that
kangaroos are not the main problem
and in fact ‘native grasses’ are not
threatened with extinction, but other animals and plants are, and that
“the biggest ‘contributor’ to the loss of the natural treeless grasslands
of our region has been agriculture (by far)”.

This statement is admitting to the flawed, dishonest kangaroo management plan,
and russell watkinson’s media release, on Friday 18/6/10, that blames the kangaroos for driving legless lizards, earless dragons, etc, and the deteriorating
grasslands and woodlands to extinction, by eating all the grasses, when
fletcher admits that the native grasses are not threatened by the kangaroos,
but by human activity, including toxic sprays.

Please check out this link http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/roo-best-custodian-for-some-plants/1652005.aspx, that was in the Canberra times
on 17/10/09, that completely refutes the allegations against the roos
destroying grasslands, that was sent to maxine cooper, that were also ignored.

The report is by Julie Lindner, who has also been studying the grasslands and the
roos for the past 20 years, which backs up what I’ve been saying all along.

http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/roo-best-custodian-for-some-plants/1652005.aspx, with a more recent article in
the Chronicle in the ‘letters to the editor’ section, titled ‘culling
controversy’ p.23, 14/6/11.

Please click on this link www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUZrKj6ClBg ‘KANGAROO CHILLER BOX INVESTIGATION/KANGAROOS ON TRACK TO EXTINCTION’, that contains the cruel bashing to death of roos that are shot, but not directly killed, hung up while still alive, and left suffering, trembling as they hang, tortured to death, and joeys bashed to death, possibly attempting to decapitate the joeys head on the back of the truck with several blows.

Please click on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbn3c8EcNRk&feature=related, so called controlled government butchering, you will note that the kangaroos are still alive when hung up, suffering, AND BEING TORTURED TO DEATH, the male is laughing at the cruelty he has just inflicted on this kangaroo, a joey stomped to death, even the child stomps on it as he walks past following his father, orphaned joeys hopping around, left to starve to death, a joey bashed till its eyes popped out, but is still alive, suffering, a prolonged death, and the male admitting that these are protected species.  Native protected animals called pests, the very same native animals that maintain a healthy well balanced eco system. The code of practice that the shooter refers to is inhumane, and unacceptable, as witnessed in this video footage. Kangaroos are not fit for human or dog consumption, heavily contaminated with various diseases/harmful bacterias, e.coli, salmonella, staphylococcus, streptococcus, toxoplasmosis, preserved illegally with sulphur dioxide that causes thiamine deficiency, (a white crystalline solid forming part of the vitamin B complex, C12H17CIN4OS; a vitamin (B1), required by the nervous system, absence of which causes beri-beri and other disorders), causing death, etc. Keep watching till it stops, keep an eye on the timer, next to the speaker symbol, length 10:59.

There are more links on youtube to show the facts on the extreme cruelty committed to our native protected macropods.

Possum abattoir

http://www.engagemedia.org/Members/HuonEnviroCentre/videos/possumdeath.wmv/view, these animals are still alive and awake, when going through the
abattoir’s chute processing system, dropped on top of one another, through a
swinging door, to go through to the next phase, with several possums piled on
top of one another, into the same boxes, when delivered to the abattoir,
(possums are extremely territorial,) females with joeys, butchered, and bashed
to death. Please Help stop these extreme acts of animal cruelty and export. You
can help stop these extreme acts of animal cruelty to these possums by adding
the above link to the possum abattoir and lodging your submissions by 23/4/10,
to wta@environment.gov.au, wildlife.enq@dpipwe.tas.gov.auand
click on link http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/invitecomment/brushtail-possum.html
Submissions are now closed.

Disclaimer: WCG and the author do not assume or
accept any responsibility and shall not be liable for the accuracy or
appropriate application of the information contained in this letter/email.

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