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KANGAROO MEAT TESTING FOR E. Coli, coliforms and TVC and Salmonella

4. Procedure

4.1 Sample Collection

Kangaroos


Incoming kangaroo carcases must be tested for E. coli, coliforms and TVC*


Skinned carcases of kangaroos must be tested for E. coli, coliforms, TVC and Salmonella*.


Bulk packed manufacturing meat derived from kangaroo carcases must be tested for E. coli , coliforms and TVC *.

* Analysis for TVC, coliforms ,E. coli and Salmonellacan be performed from the same sample.

For the purposes of determining production volume and therefore sampling frequency, a separate processing chain is defined in the following cases:

4.1.1 Each shift is considered a separate processing chain. An establishment is considered operating a shift when it operates a separate morning and evening shift, or where the operation involves 12-13 hour 3-day shifts. In the latter case a separate team is employed for each of the shifts.

4.1.2 Different classes of animals e.g. kangaroo & wild boar are processed on the same chain.

4.1.3 Multiple processing chain establishments, where the same class of animal is processed on two or more different chains.

4.2 Selection of Carcases/Cartons

Sampling shall be carried out on randomly selected carcases and cartons. It is important that selection of carcases and cartons is made on a statistically based random sampling program (e.g. commercially available random number tables or a computer spreadsheet application such as ‘EXCEL’). Carcases and cartons processed during different processing production periods must have an equal chance of being selected for sampling.

4.3 Sampling Method

Sampling of the stipulated sites (below) shall be carried out using a swabbing method as detailed in AMN 2003/06 using a 5cm x 5cm sampling area on randomly selected carcases. Tested carcases or cartons are not required to be held pending availability of test results.

Individual pieces of bulk packed
manufacturing
meat are sampled by cutting a single 25 cm 2 slice of surface tissue (maximum thickness ~ 5 mm) from product with a sterile instrument. Equipment must be sterilised between cartons. The sample is placed aseptically into a sample container or a plastic dilution bag at the establishment and transported to the laboratory.

4.4 Sampling Area

4.4.1 Kangaroo (pre-dressing) – swab sample from one site (25cm?).

4.4.2 Kangaroo (dressed) – swab samples from three sites (25cm? x 3 = 75cm?).

4.4.3 Kangaroo bulk packed manufacturing meat – excision sample from one site (25cm? by 5mm deep).

4.5 Sampling Sites

4.5.1 Kangaroo (Pre- dressing)

Sampling location for microbiological testing.

Template size: 5cm x 5cm
Sampling area: 25cm? per site
Total area sampled: 25cm?

4.5.1.1 Fillet: The lower edge of the template should be placed approximately 5 cm above the posterior edge of the kidneys.

4.5.2 Kangaroo (dressed)

Sampling location for microbiological testing.

Template size: 5cm x 5cm
Sampling area: 25cm? per site
Total area sampled: 75cm?

Sample order: shoulder (S1) and rump (S2) and then belly (S3).

4.5.2.1 Site 1 (S1) Shoulder (forequarter): on the lateral surface of the carcase just in front (anterior) of the shoulder blade (the spine of the scapula).

4.5.2.2 Site 2 (S2) Rump (hindquarter): on the lateral surface of the carcase, half way between the stifle (knee) and the hip.

4.5.2.3 Site 3 (S3) Belly: Locate the last thoracic rib. The site is in alignment with the caudal edge of the last thoracic rib and bordering the mid-line cut.

4.5.3 Kangaroo
bulk packed manufacturing meat

Product samples will be collected randomly from meat within the carton.

4.7 Sterilisation of templates and equipment

In order to ensure there is no cross-contamination between carcases/cartons and templates, or equipment to carcases/cartons, templates and equipment must be correctly ‘sterilised’ at the commencement of sampling and between carcases. Used templates may be returned to the laboratory for cleaning and sanitising or immersed for 6-10 seconds in an 82 oC steriliser immediately prior to sampling. Templates do not have to be sterilised between sample sites only between carcases/cartons.

4.8 Sampling Frequency

E. coli, coliforms and TVC

Species/Product Processed

Sampling Frequency

Sampling Area

Kangaroo (pre-dressing)

1 sample every 300 carcases with a minimum of 1 per truck

25 cm2

Dressed Kangaroo

1 sample every 600 carcases

75 cm2

Kangaroo bulk packed manufacturing meat

1 sample every 500 cartons

25 cm2 by 5mm deep

Dressed Wild Boar

1 sample every 200 carcases

50 cm2

For each production shift, each establishment must conduct at least one set of testing on one carcase and one carton.

Salmonella

Species Processed

Sampling Frequency

Sampling Area

Dressed Kangaroo

1 sample every 3000 carcases

75 cm2

4.9 Sample submission records

Sufficient information should be recorded and kept on-plant against the sample to allow identification and trace-back. Samples from pre-dressing and dressed game should be recorded with all the information on the harvester ticket. If possible, bulked packed product sample records should also contain as much harvester data as possible.

5. Testing Requirements

5.1 Test Methodology

Note: Laboratories approved for the determination of E. coli using Petrifilm are automatically approved for analysis of coliform bacteria using Petrifilm ie AOAC 991.14.

Laboratories testing chilled carcases as part of the National Microbiological Monitoring program (formally ESAM samples)

6.1 Sample Temperature/Transportation

6.1.1 E. coli / coliform / TVC and Salmonella samples must be transported between 0o and 7oC unless frozen as detailed above.

6.1.2 Samples must be refrigerated (or frozen) as soon as practical after collection (refrigeration or freezing must commence within one-hour of collection). NB: Swab samples cannot be frozen.

6.1.3 Bags containing samples must be sealed to ensure that there is no cross-contamination between samples during transport; this may require samples to be enclosed within a second bag.

6.1.4 Insert into the dispatch container all relevant documentation pertaining to the samples, including the date, time of collection and whether the samples are chilled or frozen. 6.1.5 Samples are to be transported in appropriate containers as directed by the laboratory. Containers must be able to maintain the sample temperature between 0 and 7?C. Frozen samples can be transported at 0-7?C but must not be re-frozen on arrival at the laboratory.

Reporting of E. coli, coliform, and TVC Results

All test results with one or more positive colonies must be recorded by the company as a count per cm2. If no colonies are present on plates from the initial dilution, the count is reported as less than (<) the limit of detection. Laboratories must report the actual result as cfu/cm2 . A sufficient number of dilutions must be performed to ensure quantitative results are reported for coliforms, E. coli and TVC.

Reporting dressed carcase and bulk packed manufacturing meat results to the national microbiological database, results for coliforms, E. coli and TVC less than the limit of detection of the method are reported as zero.

Reporting of Salmonella Results

Results for samples tested for Salmonella must be reported as pass or fail (i.e. detected or not detected).

9. Interpretation of Test Results

9.1. Interpretation of E. coli Results (Dressed Carcases and Bulk Packed Manufacturing Meat)

Interpretation of E. coli results is based on a ‘three-class sampling plan’similar to that used for other slaughter species. Traditionally, three-class sampling plans have been used for demonstrating statistical process control. The performance of such sampling plans is defined by parameters m, M, n and c, where:

m ‘ [little ‘m’] is a defined value separating a good result from a marginally acceptable result (values above m but not greater than M are marginal).

M ‘: [big ‘M’] is the maximum value for a marginal result (values greater than M are unacceptable).

n ‘ is the number of samples in a window.

c ‘ is the number of marginal samples allowed in ‘n’ samples.

Based on these parameters a sample result can fall into one of three possible categories ie

Acceptable – less than or equal to a defined limit ( m ) ( ≤ m cfu/cm2)

Marginal – greater than m but not higher than M (>m, bu t ≤ M]).

Unacceptable – results greater than M (> M cfu/cm2) .

9.2. Performance Standards for E. coli (Dressed Carcases and Bulk Packed Manufacturing Meat)

E. coli Performance Standards based on 2007 national microbiological monitoring data

Species

n

c

m

( cfu/cm2)

M

( cfu/cm2)

Kangaroo

15

7

50

500

Sampling is by a moving window so that on any day the previous 15 samples (including the current day’s sample) are considered when assessing compliance with the performance standards. In order to allow for corrections in a process to be evaluated a window will be ‘reset’ after each failure and subsequent corrective/preventive actions. A window will fail if E. coli results > ‘m’ and ≤ ‘M’ exceed ‘c’ or a single result >M is recorded. Such results will trigger an E. coli ‘ALERT’. Appendix 1 demonstrates a moving window.

When an E. coli sampling window fails, the establishment must immediately notify the AQIS OPS. An E. coli ‘Alert’ will require the establishment to initiate a review of the possible causative factors contributing to the ‘Alert’. This may include external (e.g. collection / harvesting, transportation, storage) and/or internal factors (eg carcase dressing procedures, employee training). It should also include action undertaken to prevent the recurrence of the contributing factors.

Verification of corrective action can be achieved through further monitoring of microbiological results under this program. However, if recurrent deviations from expected performance results occur, the efficacy of the corrective actions taken must be queried and more effective changes implemented to prevent the recurrence.

9.3 Coliform bacteria (Dressed Carcases and Bulk Packed Manufacturing Meat)

AQIS has also established a target limit for coliform bacteria of <1000 cfu/cm2. A coliform count can be obtained, for example, from an E. coli Petrifilm plate by adding the number of blue colonies with gas to the number of red colonies with gas. This combined number can be used to obtain a coliform count per cm2 as described above (section 8.1). If the coliform count is greater than or equal to 1000 cfu/cm2 the establishment should consider disposition in light of importing country requirements.

A review process, as for an E. coli sampling window failure, should be followed if the coliform count is greater than or equal to 1000 cfu/cm2 .

9.4 Interpretation of TVC Results (Dressed Carcases and Bulk Packed Manufacturing Meat)

Interpretation of TVC results is also based on a ‘three-class sampling plan’ similar to that described in section 9.1, against the performance standards specified below.

TVC Performance Standards

Species

n

c

m

( cfu/cm2)

M

( cfu/cm2)

Kangaroo

15

4

10000

100000

The TVC results are assessed on a moving window of 15 consecutive samples to allow for continuous process monitoring against the Quality Standards. In order to allow for corrections in a process to be evaluated the window will be ‘reset’ after each failure and subsequent corrective/preventive actions. A window will fail if more than ‘c’ results fall between ‘m’ and ‘M’; or a single result greater than ‘M’ is recorded. Such results will trigger a TVC ‘Alert’

A TVC ‘Alert’ will require the establishment to initiate a review of the possible causative factors contributing to the ‘Alert’. This may include external factors (eg. environmental factors, stock condition) and/or internal factors (eg. carcass dressing procedures, employee training). It should also include action undertaken to prevent the recurrence of contributing factors. The review outcomes should be documented and signed by the person(s) responsible for the action and the AQIS OPS. Records of this must be provided to AQIS for audit purposes.

Verification of corrective/preventive actions can usually be achieved through further monitoring under this program. However, if recurrent deviations from expected performance results occur, the efficacy of the corrective actions taken must be queried and more effective changes implemented to prevent the recurrence.

9.5 Interpretation of Salmonella Results (Dressed Carcasses)

Salmonella Performance Standards

Class of Product

No. of Samples in a Window

Maximum number of Positives Acceptable

Kangaroo

55

1

Salmonella detection does not by itself indicate a failure of the process, as contamination can be random in nature. Therefore one positive Salmonella detection is permitted in a ‘window’ of 55 samples. If a positive Salmonella detection occurs, normal sampling is to continue at the rate in section 4.8 and a sample window commences from the positive sample identification (ie. the positive is included in the sample window). In the event that a second positive Salmonella detection occurs within the same window of 55 samples, it will be deemed that the ‘window has failed’.

When the Salmonella performance standard has been breached (i.e. failure of window), the establishment must investigate to determine the cause of the non-compliance and implement effective corrective/preventive action. The effectiveness of the corrective/preventive action must be verified through enhanced levels of oversight and audit. In the event a processing deviation could not account for the findings, external factors (eg collection, storage and transportation) should be investigated.

Where Salmonella detections exceed the permitted number of positives, sampling is to stop irrespective of whether or not the number of samples required to complete the sample window are achieved and a new window of 55 samples must commence once corrective actions have been taken.

Where the AQIS OPS does not consider the corrective/preventive action taken in response to the ‘failure of a window’ to be satisfactory (i.e. where failures continue), a Corrective Action Request (CAR) will be issued

For testing of dressed carcasses or bulk packed manufacturing meat, where a coliform count equals or exceeds 1000 cfu/ cm2 or an E. coli or TVC alert occur and/or failure of a Salmonella window occur, investigate the cause/s, implement appropriate corrective/preventive action and document the outcome.

Appendix 1

Example of a moving window with reset for wild board where n=15, c=4, m=50, M=500

Key Elements:

  • “ALERT”(Failure) when more than 4 marginal results (between ‘m’ &’M’) or 1 result >’M’
  • Detections less than ‘m’ are reported but not included in marginal count
  • Window ‘Reset’ on failure
  • Windows moves forward with every additional sample
  • Where no ‘Failure’ a new window starts after 15 sample.

Example of a moving window with reset for kangaroo where n=15, c=7, m=50, M=500

Ref: aqis

Click this link: https://wildlifecarersgroup.wordpress.com/2011/09/04/wildlife-carers-group-kangaroo-meat-testing-%e2%80%93-5-day-work-experience-student-4-8-july-2011/?sn=l;
For full report: https://wildlifecarersgroup.wordpress.com/2011/08/04/wildlife-carers-group-wcg-visit-to-callum-brae-nature-reserve-etc-full-5-day-work-experience-student-wes-placement-report-trained-by-wcg-founding-president-nora-preston-4-8-july-2011/?sn=l, for Wildlife Carers Group Kangaroo meat testing, process, results, etc.

WILDLIFE CARERS GROUP WOULD LIKE TO THANK YOU FOR ALL YOUR SUPPORT IN 2009/2010.


WISHING YOU A VERY SAFE AND HAPPY YEAR FOR 2011.

There can be no discrimination against our native wildlife, all native wildlife are precious to our Eco system, in assisting to maintain a healthy well balanced Eco system, and will be protected, and rehabilitated equally.

Wildlife Carers Group, the only local wildlife group with long term expertise and knowledge in our native wildlife, that will act on, and investigate animal cruelty/welfare/rights, and, as a community group, that also cares about our community, and the rights of our community groups.

Wildlife Carers Group, the only local wildlife group helping to keep our state and country out of deficit, with no government funding, run solely by volunteers, that is keeping you in a job.

Wildlife Carers Group, the only local wildlife group that trains work experience students.

NORA PRESTON ( began rehabilitating wildlife in the early ’80’s .)

President/Founder
WCG – WILDLIFE CARERS GROUP INC. – Founded in 2004.
PO Box 3509
WESTON CREEK ACT 2611
Mob: 0406 056 099
Email:
wildlife_carers_group@yahoo.com.au

Website: http://wcg.awardspace.com

http://www.myspace.com/wcginc Check out http://www.myspace.com/wcginc and become a friend. We are also onFacebook, http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1649024860&v=info with photos included on the site, and become a friend. You can now follow us and join us on Twitter http://twitter.com/wildlifecarersg/,http://canberra.climatexchange.org.au/wildlife-carers-group

2 July 2011

Support WCG. WCG is an independent, non profit, non government community based charity providing animal/wildlife care, rescue/rehabilitation and is also an animal/wildlife welfare group, providing protection for our wildlife/animals, run solely by volunteers, with no government funding, saving taxpayers money. WCG relies on donations from the public in order to carry out its work. If you would like to make a donation to WCG, please send a cheque/money order made payable to Wildlife Carers Group Inc. To PO Box 3509 , Weston Creek. ACT. 2611. AUSTRALIA . Or contact us by email wildlife_carers_group@yahoo.com.au
or mobile: 0406 056 099 to discuss other alternatives. Thank you for all your support .

Aims and Objectives: To promote the general welfare and continued survival of native fauna and flora as an essential element of the environment, and specifically to undertake the specialised care necessary for the rehabilitation of orphaned, sick and injured native birds and other animals, to promote public awareness of the need to conserve existing wildlife species, and an understanding of their particular habitat and feeding requirements.

Support WCG. Become a WCG MEMBER, VOLUNTEER, WILDLIFE CARER, download the m/ship form from http://wcg.awardspace.com and join up. Thank you for all your support.

You can help us make the necessary changes for our native protected Eastern Grey Kangaroos, by signing this petition, and circulating this for us http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/saveallthe-kangaroos.html.

In this article, interviewed on 15/4/10, http://www.nowuc.com.au/2010/05/27/kangaroo-plan…/comment-page-1/ don fletcher from tams says that kangaroos are not the main problem and in fact ‘native grasses’ are not threatened with extinction, but other animals and plants are, and that “the biggest ‘contributor’ to the loss of the natural treeless grasslands of our region has been agriculture (by far)”.

This statement is admitting to the flawed, dishonest kangaroo management plan, and russell watkinson’s media release, on Friday 18/6/10, that blames the kangaroos for driving legless lizards, earless dragons, etc, and the deteriorating grasslands and woodlands to extinction, by eating all the grasses, when fletcher admits that the native grasses are not threatened by the kangaroos, but by human activity, including toxic sprays.

Please check out this link http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/roo-best-custodian-for-some-plants/1652005.aspx, that was in the Canberra times on 17/10/09, that completely refutes the allegations against the roos destroying grasslands, that was sent to maxine cooper, that were also ignored.

The report is by Julie Lindner, who has also been studying the grasslands and the roos for the past 20 years, which backs up what I’ve been saying all along.

http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/roo-best-custodian-for-some-plants/1652005.aspx, with a more recent article in the Chronicle in the ‘letters to the editor’ section, titled ‘culling controversy’ p.23, 14/6/11.

Please click on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUZrKj6ClBg ‘KANGAROO CHILLER BOX INVESTIGATION’/’KANGAROOS ON TRACK TO EXTINCTION’, that contains the cruel bashing to death of roos that are shot, but not directly killed, hung up while still alive, and left suffering, trembling as they hang, tortured to death, and joeys bashed to death, possibly attempting to decapitate the joeys head on the back of the truck with several blows.

Please click on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbn3c8EcNRk&feature=related, so called controlled government butchering, you will note that the kangaroos are still alive when hung up, suffering, AND BEING TORTURED TO DEATH, the male is laughing at the cruelty he has just inflicted on this kangaroo, a joey stomped to death, even the child stomps on it as he walks past following his father, orphaned joeys hopping around, left to starve to death, a joey bashed till its eyes popped out, but is still alive, suffering, a prolonged death, and the male admitting that these are protected species. Native protected animals called pests, the very same native animals that maintain a healthy well balanced eco system. The code of practice that the shooter refers to is inhumane, and unacceptable, as witnessed in this video footage. Kangaroos are not fit for human or dog consumption, heavily contaminated with various diseases/harmful bacterias, e.coli, salmonella, staphylococcus, streptococcus, toxoplasmosis, preserved illegally with sulphur dioxide that causes thiamine deficiency, (a white crystalline solid forming part of the vitamin B complex, C12H17CIN4OS; a vitamin (B1), required by the nervous system, absence of which causes beri-beri and other disorders), causing death, etc. Keep watching till it stops, keep an eye on the timer, next to the speaker symbol, length 10:59.

There are more links on youtube to show the facts on the extreme cruelty committed to our native protected macropods.

Possum abattoir

http://www.engagemedia.org/Members/HuonEnviroCentre/videos/possumdeath.wmv/view, these animals are still alive and awake, when going through the abattoir’s chute processing system, dropped on top of one another, through a swinging door, to go through to the next phase, with several possums piled on top of one another, into the same boxes, when delivered to the abattoir, (possums are extremely territorial,) females with joeys, butchered, and bashed to death. Please Help stop these extreme acts of animal cruelty and export. You can help stop these extreme acts of animal cruelty to these possums by adding the above link to the possum abattoir and lodging your submissions by 23/4/10, to wta@environment.gov.au, wildlife.enq@dpipwe.tas.gov.auand click on link http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/invitecomment/brushtail-possum.html Submissions are now closed.

Disclaimer: WCG and the author do not assume or accept any responsibility and shall not be liable for the accuracy or appropriate application of the information contained in this letter/email.

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